Today we share with all of you these interesting pedagogical principles that will facilitate the learning of our students in class.
According to Salinas (2007), media design “requires at least two components: methods to facilitate learning and human development (which are also called instructional methods) and indications of when and when not to use said methods. (which calls situations) ”.
To this end, Salinas (2007) takes Merrill (2002) as a reference, which proposes five first principles that facilitate learning and that are,
These principles allow us to observe that students start from their reality, observe their environment and identify problems or difficulties, use their experiences and their knowledge to serve as a base or foundation for the construction of new knowledge. The applicability of the new knowledge allows solving the initial problems or difficulties; and finally they have the ability to transfer these new knowledge or skills to their peers and context.
The pedagogical principles of Merrill (2002), are based on the constructivism theory, and part of the following assumptions (Merril, 1991 in Smorgansbord, 1997)
“Knowledge is built from experience.
Learning is a personal interpretation of the world.
Learning is an active process in which meaning develops on the basis of experience.
Conceptual growth comes from negotiating meaning, sharing multiple perspectives, and modifying our own representations through collaborative learning.
Learning must be based on realistic agreements; The test should be integrated with assignments and not with separate activities. “
Taking as a reference this relationship between Constructivism and pedagogical principles, we can analyze Merrill’s strengths and weaknesses. (Schuman, 1996) defines a Strength of constructivism – “as the learner is capable of interpreting multiple realities, he is better prepared to face real life situations. If a learner can solve problems, he will be better prepared to apply his knowledge to new and changing situations.
In addition (Schuman, 1996), it also raises Weakness – as “a situation where conformity is essential, divergent thinking and initiative could be a problem. Let’s just imagine what would happen with the fiscal funds, if we all decided to pay taxes according to the criteria of each one – In spite of this there are some very “constructivist” approaches that carry out exact routines to avoid problems ”.
Salinas (2007), also presents the principles of Herrington and others (2003), which are of general application:
1.- Authentic tasks have to be relevant in the real world.
2.- They must be weakly defined, requiring students to define the tasks and subtasks necessary to complete the activity.
3.- They must include complex activities to be investigated by students for a considerable period of time
4.- They should provide the opportunity for the student to examine the task from different perspectives, using a variety of resources.
5.- They must provide the opportunity to collaborate
6.- They must provide the opportunity to reflect and involve the student’s values and beliefs.
7.- They must be integrated and applied through different areas and exceed the results of a specific domain
8.- It must be integrated in a similar way with the valuation
9.- They must generate valuable products by themselves instead of being preparation for something else
10.- They must allow competent solutions and diversity of results.
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